尊宝娱乐 - 硬货 | 法国斗牛犬 FCI 标准中英对照版

${website.getHeaderOriginal(${article.taxonomyName})}

注:法国斗牛犬中文标准由CKU翻译自FCI法国斗牛犬标准英文版( 2015年4月17日),该标准中文版已发布于CKU新官网-犬种百科

FCI-Standard N° 101

FCI-国际纯种犬标准第 101号

FRENCH BULLDOG (Bouledogue Français)

法国斗牛犬

17.04.2015/ EN

2015年4月17日/英文版

▲ 本图片为FCI犬种标准配图,

并不一定代表该犬种的理想类型

TRANSLATION:Translator Ian Nicholson /FR/. Revised by RenéeSporre-Willes, Raymond Triquet and Claude Guintard.

翻译:伊恩·尼古拉斯/法国/

校对:勒内·斯波尔-威尔斯, 雷蒙德·特里凯,克劳德·奎塔德

ORIGIN: France

起源国:法国

UTILIZATION: Companion and Toy dog.

用途:伴侣犬、玩赏犬

FCI-CLASSIFICATION: Group 9 Companion and Toy Dogs. Section 11 Small Molossian Dogs. Without working trial.

FCI分组:第9组  伴侣犬与玩具犬,第11类 小型獒犬类,无需工作犬测试

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY: Probably decending, like allmastiffs, from the Epirus and the Roman Empire molossers, relativeof the Bulldog of Great Britain, the Alaunts (tribe of the MiddleAges), the mastiffs and small-type mastiffs of France. The bulldogwe know is the product of different crossings done by enthusiasticbreeders in the popular quarters of Paris in the 1880s. During thatperiod, the Bulldog was a dog belonging to Parisian market porters,butchers and coachmen, it soon won over high society and theartistic world by its particular appearance and character. It rapidlybecame popular. The first breed club was founded in 1880 in Paris.The first registration dates from 1885 and the first standard wasestablished in 1898, the year in which the French Kennel Clubrecognized the French Bulldog breed. The first dog of this breed wasshown at an exhibition as early as 1887. The standard, modified in1931-1932 and 1948, was reformulated in 1986 by H.F. Reant withthe collaboration of R. Triquet (F.C.I. publication 1987), then in1994 by Violette Guillon (F.C.I. publication 1995) and in 2012 bythe French Bulldog Club committee.

历史沿革:或许就像所有的獒犬,如伊庇鲁斯犬(epirus)和罗马帝国莫罗山犬(molosses)(英国斗牛犬的近亲),阿兰犬(alans-中世纪部落),法国小型獒犬等所有獒犬一样,我们所了解到的斗牛犬是由热情的繁育者在19世纪80年代的巴黎所繁育的品种。在那一时期,斗牛犬为巴黎市场的搬运工,屠夫与马车夫所用,此犬种不久便以其独特的外貌和特性征服了上层社会和艺术界。在那一时期,斗牛犬巴黎市场里的搬运工,屠夫与马车夫所用,此后不久,该犬种便以其独特的外貌和特性征服了上层社会和艺术界,迅速流行起来。该犬种的第一个俱乐部于1880年在巴黎成立,第一个注册登记要追溯到1885年,第一个犬种标准于1898年确立,在这一年中,法国“法国犬业协会”认可了法国斗牛犬这一品种。此犬种首次展出的时间为1887年。上述标准于1931、1932与1948年进行了修订,于1986年由H.F.里安特(H.F.Reant)和R.特里奎特(R.Triquet)合作进行重新修改(F.C.I于1987年公布),随后法国斗牛犬俱乐部委员会在与R.特里奎特合作的情况下,于1994年又进行了重新阐释。

GENERAL APPEARANCE: The type is of a small-sizedmolossian. A powerful dog for its small size, short, stocky, compactin all its proportions, smooth-coated, with a snub nose, erect ears anda naturally short tail. Must have the appearance of an active,intelligent, very muscular dog, of a compact build with a solid bonestructure. No point is exaggerated compared to the others, whichcould spoil the dog’s general harmony, in appearance and inmovement.

总体外形:是一种典型的小型莫罗山犬。体形小,身短,结实有力,比例紧凑,被毛顺滑,脸短,翘鼻,竖耳,自然的短尾。该犬种必须展现出活跃的性格特征,聪明,肌肉发达,身体结构紧凑,骨架结实。没有必要过分夸张某一特点,导致破坏犬只自身在外形与动态上的整体协调性。

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS: The length of the body –between the point of the shoulder and the point of the buttocks –slightly surpasses the height at the withers.The length of muzzle is about 1/6 of the total length of the head.

重要比例身长 — 肩点与臀尖之间的长度,应稍微超过肩胛骨的高度。口吻的长度约占头部总长度的1/6。

BEHAVIOUR / TEMPERAMENT: Sociable, lively, playful,possessive and keen companion dog.

行为/秉性:友好,活泼,好嬉戏,占有欲强的伴侣犬

HEAD: Must be strong, broad and square, covered by the skin of thehead which forms symmetrical folds and wrinkles, without excess.

头部:必须强壮,宽,成方形;头部皮肤形成对称的褶皱和皱纹,但褶皱量不过度

CRANIAL REGION

颅部区域

Skull: Broad, almost flat from ear to ear, domed forehead.Proeminent superciliary arches, separated by a particularlydeveloped furrow between the eyes. The furrow must not extendonto the skull. External occipital protuberance is barely developed. 

头骨:宽,两耳之间几近扁平,前额隆起呈半球状。眉弓隆起明显,被两眼间独特的皱纹所分开。两眼之间的皱纹不得延伸至头骨,枕外隆突几乎未发育。

Stop: Pronounced.

额段:明显。

FACIAL REGION

面部区域

FACIAL REGION: The head of the Bulldog is characterized by ashortening of the maxillary-nasal part as well as a slight tomoderate slope of the nose backwards. The nose is slightlyupturned (“snub nose”).

面部区域:法国斗牛犬的头部极具特色,上颌骨至鼻部距离较短,同时鼻前端适度向后倾斜,并轻微上翘,(“狮子鼻”)

Nose: Black, broad, snubbed, with symmetrical and well openednostrils, slanting towards the rear. The slope of the nostrils as well asthe upturned nose must, however, allow normal nasal breathing.

鼻:呈黑色,宽,扁而上翘。鼻孔对称,开阔,向后倾斜。同时,鼻孔的倾斜及上翘不能妨碍鼻部的正常呼吸。

Muzzle: Very short, broad, with concentric symmetrical folds.

口吻:短而宽,两侧褶皱以口吻为中心对称分布。

Lips: Thick, a little loose and black. The upper lip meets the lowerlip at its middle, completely covering the teeth.

The profile of the upper lip is descending and rounded. The tonguemust never show when the dog is not excited.

唇:厚,黑色且略松弛。上下唇在中间相连,并完全将牙齿覆盖。

上唇的轮廓呈圆形,并下垂。非兴奋的状态下,该犬种的舌头必须从不外露。

Jaws/Teeth: Broad and powerful. The lower jaw projects in front ofthe upper jaw and turns up. The arch of the lower incisors isrounded. The jaw must not show lateral deviation, or torsion.The gap between the incisors of the upper and the lower jawshould not be strictly delimited, the essential condition beingthat the upper and the lower lips meet to completely cover theteeth. The lower incisors surpass the upper incisors. Sufficientlydeveloped incisives and canines. Complete bite is desirable.

颌/牙齿:颌部宽,强壮。下颌比上颌靠前,且下颌向上。下门齿向上拱起,呈弧形。颌部不能出现横向偏离,或者扭曲。上下门齿之间的距离没有严格的界定,但当上下唇闭合时必须能完全覆盖牙齿。下门齿比上门齿靠前。犬齿发育良好,锋利,且有完美的剪状咬合。

Cheeks: Well developed.

脸颊:脸颊肌肉发达。

Eyes: Clearly visible eyes, striking with lively expression, set low,quite far from the nose and the ears, dark coloured, rather large,rounded, showing no trace of white (sclera) when the dog is lookingstraight forward. Rims of eyelids must be black.

眼睛:眼睛清晰可辨,伴有引人注目的生动表情,位置低,且远离鼻部与耳部。眼睛呈深色,大且圆,当犬向前看时,不露出白色(巩膜)。眼睑边缘必须为黑色。

Ears: Medium size, wide at the base and rounded at the top. Set highon the head, but not too close together, carried erect. The ear is opentowards the front. The skin must be fine and soft to the touch.

耳朵:中等大小,根部宽,尖部圆。双耳位于头部的较高位置,两耳间距大,立耳。耳孔口向前。用手触摸耳部皮肤细腻,柔软。

NECK: Short, powerful, slightly arched, without dewlap, broadenstowards the shoulder.

颈部短,强壮,略成拱形,无垂皮,向肩部扩展变宽

BODY

躯干

Topline: Rising progressively, but not excessively, from thewithers towards the loin. That conformation – also called roachbackis typical for the breed. 

顶线:从马肩隆至腰部逐渐上升,但并不过分,此结构也称作弓背,是该犬种典型的背线。

Back: Broad and muscular, firm without slackness.

背:宽阔,肌肉强壮,结实,不松弛

Loin: Short, broad and arched.

腰:短而宽,呈拱形。

Croup: Well sloping.

臀部:自然倾斜。

Chest: Cylindrical and well let down (slightly under the elbows);very well sprung ribs, so-called “barrel shaped”. Fore chest, broad and square-shaped, seen from the front.

胸:呈圆柱形,自然下垂(略微低于肘部),肋骨扩张良好,自然的呈现出桶状。从前方看,前胸宽阔且呈方形

Underline and belly: Tucked up but not whippety.

下腹线和腹部:自然收缩,但不像惠比特般收缩紧。

TAIL: Naturally short, ideally long enough to cover the anus, setlow, rather straight, thick at the base and tapering at the tip.

A kinked, knotted, broken or relatively long tail that does notreach beyond the point of the hocks, is admitted. It is carriedlow. Even in action, the tail must not rise above the horizontal.

:自然短尾,理想的长度应足够覆盖住肛门,位置低,相当直。尾根部较厚,尖部较细。

自然打结或扭曲的断尾,或是相对较长的尾但长度不超过跗关节,是可以接受的。尾始终保持较低,即使在运动中也能保持在身体水平线以下。

LIMBS

FOREQUARTERS

四肢

前躯

General appearance: Forelegs upright (and straight) seen in profile and from the front.

整体外形:从侧面和前面观察,前腿垂直于地面(且笔直)。

Shoulder: Must be well laid back.

肩:必须自然后倚。

Upper arm: Short, thick, muscular, slightly curved.

上臂:短,厚,肌肉结实,轻微弯曲。

Elbows: Close and tight to the body.

肘:紧凑的靠近身体。

Forearm: Short, straight and muscular. Carpus (Wrist): Solid and short.

前臂:短,直,肌肉强健。

腕骨(腕关节):结实,短。

Metacarpus (Pastern): Short and slightly oblique seen in profile.

掌骨(系部):短,从侧面看略微倾斜。

Forefeet: Round, compact, of small dimension, i.e. «cat feet»,turning slightly outward. The toes are tight, nails short, thickand black.

前足:浑圆饱满,紧凑,尺寸较小,类似于猫的足部,并轻微向外。脚趾紧凑,脚趾甲短,厚,呈黑色。

LIMBS

HINDQUARTERS

四肢

后躯

General appearance: The hindlegs are strong and muscular, alittle longer than the forelegs, thus raising the hindquarters. Thelegs are upright as seen both in profile and from behind.

总体外形:后肢强壮,肌肉结实,较前肢略长,因此后驱略高。无论从侧面后面观察,腿都是垂直的。

Thigh: Well muscled, firm.

大腿:肌肉发达,结实。

Hock joint: Quite well let down, neither too angulated nor toostraight. Tarsus : solid.

跖部:自然下垂,不太弯也不太直。跗骨:结实。

Metatarsus (Rear pastern): Short.

后腿系部:短。

Hind feet: Round, compact, turning neither inward nor outward.

后足:浑圆饱满,紧凑,既不向内弯曲也不向外弯曲。

GAIT/MOVEMENT: The legs moving parallel to the medianplane of the body, whether seen in front or in profile. Free,powerful and smooth movement.

步态/动态:从前面和侧面观察,运动时四肢与身体正中面平行,运动自如,有力,流畅。

SKIN: Firm.

皮肤紧实

COAT

被毛

Hair: Smooth coat, close, glossy and soft, without undercoat.

毛质:被毛顺滑,密实,有光泽,柔软,无底毛。

Colour: fawn, brindled or not, with or without white spotting.

毛色:浅黄褐色,无论有无斑纹,或有无白色斑点。

Coat with colouring:

被毛颜色:

Brindle: Fawn coat moderately characterized by transversaldark brindling creating a ‘tiger-marked’ effect, stronglybrindled coats must not cover out the fawn ground colour. Ablack mask may be present. Limited white spotting is admissible.

虎斑色:整体为浅黄褐色被毛,其中有显著的横向斑纹呈现出老虎被毛斑纹的效果,但虎斑色被毛不能遮盖住浅黄褐色的底色。若该犬为虎斑色被毛,那么脸部可以有黑面罩。并且有少许的白色斑点是可以接受的。

Fawn: Solid coat, from light fawn to dark fawn, sometimespresenting a paler colouring of the inclined parts, with orwithout a black mask, although masked subjects are preferred.Sometimes accompanied by limited white spotting.

浅黄褐色:纯色被毛,从浅黄褐色到深黄褐色,有时在倾斜部位伴有稍浅的着色,脸部是否为黑色都可接受,但脸部为黑色最佳。有时也会伴有少许白色斑点。

Coat with white spotting:

被毛中带有白色斑点:

Brindled with moderate or important white spotting: So-called‘pied’, the spotting being ideally distributed over the entiresubject. Some blotches on the skin are admissible.

虎斑色被毛中带有适量或显著的白色斑点:此被毛称作“杂色”,且斑点均匀分布在被毛中为最佳。皮肤上带有斑点也可以接受。

Fawn with moderate or important white spotting: So-called‘fawn and white’, the spotting being ideally distributed over theentire dog. Some blotches of the skin are tolerated. The nose isalways black, in all coat colours, never brown or blue. The allwhitesubjects provided the edge of eyelids and nose are black –are admitted but not bred for, because of a risk of deafness.

浅黄褐色被毛中带有适量或显著的白色斑点:此种被毛称为“浅黄褐色和白色被毛”,白色斑点均匀分布在犬的全身为最佳。皮肤上带有一些斑点是可以接受的。无论被毛为何种颜色,鼻部颜色都应是黑色,棕色或者蓝色是不被接受的。整体毛色为白色,眼睑处和鼻部为黑色的犬也视为可以接受的,但不推荐作为种犬繁育下一代,因为此种颜色的犬有较高的失聪风险。

SIZE AND WEIGHT

尺寸和重量

Height at the withers: 

Males: 27–35 cm. 

Females: 24–32 cm. 

A deviation of 1 cm above and below the standard is tolerated.

肩高:

公犬:27-35厘米

母犬:24-32厘米

测量时误差在一厘米之内是可以接受的

Weight: 

Males: 9–14 kg. 

Females: 8–13 kg. 

500 g more than the standard weight is allowed when the subjectis typical.

重量:

公犬:9-14公斤

母犬:8-13公斤

在犬只非常优秀典型的情况下,重量超过标准重量500克是允许的。

FAULTS:Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered afault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regardedshould be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon thehealth and welfare of the dog.

缺陷:任何与上述各点标准的背离均视为缺陷,其缺陷严重性应严格地与其缺陷的程度,以及该缺陷对犬只的健康、福利造成的影响成比例。

• Strongly flecked with black brindle with white coat.

• Fawn and white coat strongly red speckled.

• In fawn coats, deep black trace extending along the spine. 

• White stockings in brindles and fawns. 

• Light-coloured nails.

• 黑色虎斑带白色并掺杂明显斑点

• 浅黄褐色和白色被毛中有明显的红色斑点

• 浅黄褐色的被毛中伴有深黑色纹理扩展在脊椎上

• 虎斑色和浅黄褐色的狗腿部为白色

• 指甲颜色浅

SEVERE FAULTS:

 • Overtyped, exaggerated breed characteristics. 

• Muzzle too long or excessively short. 

• Tongue visible when mouth is closed. 

• Light eyes (hawk eye). 

• Horizontal topline from withers to loin. 

• Excessive depigmentation of the lips, nose, eyelids, the rim ofwhich should never be entirely depigmented. 

• Pincer bite.

严重缺陷:

• 犬只的体征过分夸张该犬种特征

• 口吻太长或太短

• 当犬只的口闭合时,舌头可见

• 眼睛颜色浅(鹰眼)

• 背线从肩胛骨至腰部呈现水平

• 在唇部,鼻部,眼睑边缘处等绝不应呈现完全褪色的部位,呈现出过度的褪色

• 水平咬合

DISQUALIFYING FAULTS:

• Aggressive or overly shy dog. 

• Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalitiesshall be disqualified. 

• Lacks type: insufficient ethnic characteristics which result inthe dog not really resembling other subjects of the breed. 

• Completely closed nostrils. 

• Torsion or lateral deviation of the jaw, resulting in the tongueconstantly being visible. 

• Dog with lower incisors articulating behind upper incisors. 

• Dog with permanently visible canines (fangs), mouth beingclosed. 

• Heterochrome eyes (wall eye). 

• Colour of nose other than black. 

• Ears not carried erect. 

• Taillessness or ingrown tail. 

• Dewclaw on hindquarters. 

• Reversed hock. 

• Long, wired-haired or woolly coat.

• Colour not in accordance with what is prescribed in thestandard, namely black, black with fawn markings (blackand tan) and all dilutions of black with or without whitespotting. 

• Size and weight outside the standard limits. 

• Respiratory distress. 

• Deafness.

失格缺陷:

•  犬只有攻击性或过度羞怯

• 任何在身体和行为上明显失常的犬只应视为失格

• 体征缺陷:犬种特性不足导致犬只与该犬种其他犬只不同

• 两只鼻孔靠的太近/鼻孔闭合

• 上颌或下颌扭曲,或者横向偏离,导致舌头长期处于可见状态

• 犬的下门牙明显位于上门牙后面

• 当犬只闭嘴时,犬齿(尖牙)长期处于可见状态

• 异色眼睛(角膜白斑)

• 鼻部颜色为黑色以外的颜色

• 耳朵不是正确直立状态

• 无尾或尾巴向内生长

• 后肢上长有狼爪

• 跗关节外翻

• 长毛,刚毛,或像羊毛般的被毛

• 犬只颜色不符合犬种标准中规定的颜色,即纯黑色,黑色带棕褐色斑纹(铁包金)和所有带有或不带有白色斑点的褪色的黑色

• 尺寸和重量超过标准限定

• 呼吸困难

• 耳聋

N.B.

• Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fullydescended into the scrotum. 

• Only functionally and clinically healthy dogs, with breed typicalconformation, should be used for breeding.

• 公犬具备两个明显正常且完全置于阴囊的睾丸

• 只有身体机能以及临床表现健康的,具备典型犬种结构的犬只,才可用于繁殖。

The latest amendments are in bold characters.

最新修改的部分以黑体字显示。

${website.getFooterOriginal(${article.taxonomyName})}

发布者 :尊宝娱乐国际_唯一指定官方网站 - 分类 至尊宝娱乐平台

(必填)